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Sunday, July 22, 2018

Philosophy of Language; Part 3: The Elvish Languages



Titania's Awakening by Charles Sims

This post is a part of the online book Philosophical Counseling with Tolkien.

[...] However art of life is to move yourself backwards through the whole of this structure, which is created by the outgoing movement of time. Art of life is therefore, as Plato made it clear, to remember the outgoing movement´s negation, namely the backmovement of time, the memory of the universal vision and the universal images.

The purpose of life for the individual therefore is to move the opposite way: from the low to the high, from the random body and all it´s lust to The One and all it´s light. Life seen as a pilgrimage. 

In art of life this consists in practising neutral observation rather than evaluating; it is to be in the Now rather than in the past or the future; it is to think between the opposites, rather than to think in extremes; it is to use dialogue rather than debate; it is to, together with other people, to work one´s way towards a mutual understanding; it is to use language from the universal images of time, rather than the personal or collective images of time.

That the mind must disentangle from language is not equivalent with that language must stop. Language is in its original form divine, but it usually develops into The Black Speech of Mordor, especially in the reductionist language of modernity and postmodernity: the speech of absence and noise. In order to, that our usage of language can be precise, logical and clear, there must be a non-linguistical sensation, which carries it. It must be made transparent in presence and reality. When language is made transparent in presence it works from the universal images, and therefore synthesizing and healing. This is precisely how the Elvish languages function.

Tolkien constructed many Elvish languages. These were the languages spoken by the tribes of his Elves. Tolkien was a philologist by profession, and spent much time on his constructed languages. The Elvish languages were the first thing he imagined for his secondary world. Tolkien said that his stories grew out of his languages. Tolkien also created scripts for his Elvish languages, of which the best known are the Sarati, the Tengwar, and the Cirth.

If things come to us in their names, if language is the “house of being”, then the power of things comes to us in the power of their names. Words have power, not only to communicate, intellectually, and not only to suggest, emotionally, but also a magical power that can produce physical effects.

There are many examples of this in The Lord of the Rings. Bombadil is the clearest one. His words save Merry from Old Man Willow and Frodo from the Barrow-wight, for “None has ever caught him yet, for Tom, he is the master: His songs are stronger songs, and his feet are faster” (LOTR, p. 139).

Frodo too uses the “magical” power of words: when he calls Tom´s name, two miracles happen, one spiritual and one physical. The name conjures up both Frodo´s courage and Tom, who actually comes. Kreeft says that if we find this unconvincing, it shows how little we have taken God at His word when He repeatedly promises the same thing Bombadil did. To put the promise in contemporary words, “You just call out My Name, and you know, wherever I am, I´ll come running to see you again…”

We know there are words that sacramentally effect what they signify, there are operative words, there are magic words. Two of the most familiar “magic words” are “I love you” and “I hate you.” These are not labels for communication; they are spiritual weapons, arrows that pierce through flesh and into hearts. The whole of The Lord of the Rings is an armor-piercing rocket that can get even into our underground bunkers.

The most powerful words are proper names, names of persons or places. When the Black Rider bangs on Fatty Bulger´s door in Buckland saying, “Open in the name of Mordor”, all the authority and power and terror of Mordor are really present there. When Frodo, on Weathertop, faces the Black Rider, “he heard himself crying aloud, ‘O Elbereth! Gilthoniel!’” (LOTR, p. 191), as he struck the Rider with his sword. Afterward, Aragorn says, “All blades perish that pierce that dreadful King. More deadly to him was the name of Elbereth” (LOTR, p. 193).

In Shelob´s lair Frodo speaks in tongues again: “’Aiya Earendil Elenion Ancalimal!’ he cried, and knew not what he had spoken; for it seemed that another voice spoke through his” (LOTR, p. 704). And when the tiny Hobbit with the tiny sword advanced on the most hideous creature in Middle-earth with the phial of Galadriel and the name of Galadriel, Shelob cowered.

In Out of Africa Karen Blixen somewhere describes the magic of the words. The natives named for instance an European after an animal, and a human being, who through many years, by all his surroundings, has been named with one animal-name, finally happens to feel himself related with the animal, he is named after; he recognizes himself in this animal.

In the natives´ ability to create myths they don´t discriminate between the word and the thing, the name and the named. The white men are really, in the eyes of the natives, both humans and animals. In the same way with their linkage of spirits and machines.

Karen Blixen tells about how the natives, because of this mythical “gift”, can put experiences on humans, which they can´t defend themselves against, and not get out of. They can make humans into symbols. She is telling, that it is a kind of magic, which is used on you, and that you later never completely can disentangle from it. It can be a painfull, heavy fate to be exposed as one or the other symbol.

But also in the Western civilizations we become exposed for such a magic. It is not something, which we have come over. Now it is happening through one or the other kind of religious or political propaganda - and in particular through the media storm, which transforms humans into consumers. ”You are what you eat!” It is also this magic George Orwell describes in his novel 1984, with the language called NewSpeak, a language created by the rulers in order to control thinking. We all know it more or less. If you, by your surroundings, constantly are being induced some kind of image, you will in the end begin to believe in it, even if it is not true. Especially in family relations we see how family members are being induced roles, which are incredible difficult to disentangle from, because family relations also have with love to do.

All this is magical thinking, and there are a lot of thought distortions built into it, for example the thought-distortion Arbitrary inference which means that you make a causal linking of factors, which is accidental or misleading, and Communal reinforcement which opens you for the power of suggestion. When you use an Ideology (a system, an image), or other limited thought-constructions, to explain everything, you end in an Endless split of the thought.

The main reason for the rise of magical thinking is that you don´t discriminate between image and reality, the map and the landscape, subject and object. Such a discrimination is central in critical thinking, but it does not involve an ontological dualism, so that you can´t experience nondual, mystical states of mind. It involves a so-called epistemological dualism, or gnoseological dualism, as we already have investigated.

So central in critical thinking is the discrimination between subject and object, dream and reality - and what is lie or illusion, and reality.

And discrimination is also a central virtue in true spirituality. The Dominican mystics called this steps discriminatio, the ability to discriminate between how the energy is used temporal or religious. And despite that magical thinking actually can create something magical, then in true spirituality it is still something temporal, or relatively (black magic/occultism), which will create negative karma if practised. The Orientals call it viveka, discrimination, the ability to use your will on that part of the energy, you can steer yourself, and steer it towards exercises, prayer, mantras, meditation, instead of towards career, worldliness, self-unfolding, as for example New Thought does.

For example: meditation will in the start be characterized by, that you again and again discover, that you already long ago have absented in your thoughts by evaluating, comparing, hoping and worrying, that you again and again are being distracted by the thoughts. Don't get impatient because of this tendency, for it is an important part of the realization-aspect of the training. What it is about, is that you become aware of this fact, and sober-minded again and again take yourself out of this already automatically confirmed stream of words and image. You could call this The Sword of Discrimination. Day by day, year out and year in, it is necessary to swing The Sword of Discrimination. This is done by discriminating between neutral observation and distraction, again and again.


An important part of this is the discrimination between yourself and the spirit, between your own energy and divine energy. There are three steps in this:

1)  The tool to be used against intellectual ego-inflation is rationality and critical thinking, therefore philosophical training, where you investigate the validity of your assumptions, conceptions and values, and seek after coherence between your thoughts and lived life.

2)  where you understand the difference between the content of consciousness and the form of consciousness – that in neutrality to separate yourself from the content of consciousness, for thereby to direct yourself towards the form of consciousness; discrimination, which again is a central part of critical thinking

3)  Furthermore: ground connection (Hara, earth bound work, preferably with other people, for exampel as a social- and healthcare worker), realization work, discrimination, humble separation of the ego and the spirit; the separation of the ego and the rising, bubbleling, jubilant delight. Moreover, ethical practice, training of compassion, for example Tonglen practice.

I have explained that the two main reasons why religion and supporting exercises are a necessity is partly, that the ongoing self-confirmation of the ego and its negative automatic thoughts (or more deceptive: positive thinking), is replaced by a spiritual remembrance, partly that the collective inertia is purificated and prepared, so that the Ego is made transparent along with that original sin and negative karma are transformed and transfigured in the contact with the Source (God, Christ, the enlightened consciousness, the saints, spirit helpers etc.) And these two processes mutually fertilize each other.

I have also described that only an intervention from the source (God, Christ, the enlightened consciousness) can basically help Man with a trancendence of the negative karma of the original sin. But in order to be able to receive this help you must do your part of the work: the spiritual practice. Many years. And this means that you need to re-structure the ego´s ownership to things, food, personal power, sexuality and emotions. Spiritual practice is in all simplicity about separating and dismantling the consciousness´ automatical identification with all this, in order to turn the consciousness in towards its source. First thereafter the mystical process can begin.

The magnet of attraction, which the ego is controlled by – (the ego´s identity with the material world: instincts, sexuality, emotions, desire, collective ideals, ownership, personal power; under one: the will to power, the One Ring) – will in a true spiritual practice lose its attraction. Investments in the material world´s ups and downs, its demands, temptations and dramas, become undramatized, uninteresting, even meaningsless, in relation to the consciousness´ opening direction in towards its spiritual essence: the Now, the Wholeness, life itself, and finally: the eternal Otherness, from where the good, the true and the beautiful are streaming as grace and forgiveness.

The magnet of attraction (the will to power, the One Ring) works through the cords of the painbody. Cords are often created in combination with a kind of demonical contract. Again, one of the worst example is the New Thought movement, which has made up a whole pseudoscientific system about the laws of this magnet of attraction.

You could for example mention The Secret, which is a best-selling 2006 self-help book by Rhonda Byrne, based on the earlier film of the same name. It is based on the pseudoscientific law of attraction which claims that thoughts can change the world directly. You could also say that it claims that your cords can change the world. Well, a part of that is certainly true, but not in the way the followers believe. The movie based on the book was released around the same time as the film version of “The Da Vinci Code,” and it was cleverly packaged as a historical mystery. There are lingering shots of faded cursive script on parchment paper, often accompanied by pounding drums or wordless choirs, and Byrne talks about “tracing the Secret back through history,” revealing all the great thinkers who have harnessed its power. (According to one titlecard, “The Secret was suppressed,” though we never learn how, or by whom).

Intercut with this is a succession of American self-help gurus explaining that by really focusing on what you want, your “positive” energy flows out into the universe and is rewarded (notice the weird prior assumption, that it is “positive”, to focus on your own wishes/greed). And intercut with this mantra are dramatised scenes of this “Law of Attraction” in action: a little boy visualises a brand new bicycle and gets one from his dad; a woman focuses on some jewellery in a shop, and gets it; a man is visualizing a parking space, and vupti, there it is! At one point the “miracles coach” Joe Vitale likens the universe to a giant shopping catalogue. He says: “You flip through it and say, “I´d like to have this experience and I´d like to have that product and I´d like to have a person like that. It is you placing your order with the Universe. Its really that easy.”

On the official website (www.thesecret.tv) you can download a “Universal Bank (un)limited” check, which you can fill in with your name and the $ amount you want. The drawer is The Universe account (unlimited abundance). You can also buy The Secret Lamp (“your real-life Aladdins Lamp); The Secret Scroll Document Holder; The Wealth Beyond Reason Starter Pack; The Wealth beyond Reason Power Pack, etc. You can also join the free forum (though, of course, the fee based “Abundant” membership is highly encouraged), and much more. For money.

The movement also uses so-called vision boards, also known as a dream board: a collection of aspirations that are placed on a backing made from any stiff material that you want to utilize. You might place poems on the board expressing your biggest dreams, affirmations and magazine covers, or a variety of other things that you consider useful. Your vision board can aid focus and help you attract what you want.

That is probably the closest you come to an officially system about how to create cords through contracts. The problem is that you don´t know who it is you are making a contract with. Cords are working both ways. The contract is validated by the magnet of attraction; that is: the cords are connected to the material world: instincts, sexuality, emotions, desire, collective ideals, ownership, personal power – and cut off is the direction in towards the spiritual essence: the Soul, the Now, the Wholeness, life itself, and finally: the eternal Otherness, from where the good, the true and the beautiful are streaming as grace and forgiveness.

And since demonical powers also are attracted to all this, they will help you, since they feed on the magnet of attraction. They will feed on the cords, or rather: they will sit on the other end of the cord and feed on the energy you send them.

The New Thought movement is based on the usual New Age reductionism called psychologism, which comes to expression in philosophical idealism and subjectivism; a theory that doesn´t allow any objectivity, and therefore no other source of energy than yourself. One big ego inflated by the will to power, which the demonical powers can feed on.  

Therefore demonical beings gather around New Thought believers. The spiritual work of New Thought is characterized by victim blaming, meaning that they love to believe that anyone who is having difficult spiritual experience is doing so becasuee they in some way “asked for it” or had a lot of darkness. This belief is maintained and passed along by people who live in fear of the spirit world (darkness). They maintain illusions such as this so that they can feel comfortable and safe playing in the spiritual realms with the mentality that nothing bad or difficult will happen to them as long as they maintain a positive outlook or “high vibration”.

The problem is that this “positive outlook” is all about the magnet of attraction: the will to power.

It is actually true that the higher vibration or more conscious we become the more that we become aware of darker energies – either to help, or simply because we see more of the spectrum of the universe and are more aware of the spirit world than most people are. The more conscious we become, in fact, the easier it is for us to have all sorts of energies gravitate towards us, or even attempt to cord to us.

In some cases we may have asked for something interesting to happen to us, or worked with magic, occult material, or spiritual work that was beyond us. We may have simply been lonely and wished for a friend. All of these are contracts that may have provided an opening for a being of some sort to take us up on our wish and to form a contract or bond with us. Through discrimination we become increasingly conscious and can realize what or who is in our bodies and our field and take care of it on the appropriate level.

While there are many benevolent, kind spirits and energies (or at the very least energies that don really care about us so as not to interfere with us, our energy, or our lives) there are also energies that will interfere with cords that are either really toxic and imbalanced, or the cords that have an incredible high amount of flowing energy through them. Both types are not attaching to cords antagonistically – they are most likely looking to feed off of the toxic or negative thoughts and emotions…or of the pure heart-centered emotions that higher vibration cords can involve.

In the case of energies attracted to “lower” cords, such as cords that have a history of trauma, lots of emotions, and a rather toxic nature, it is natural for these energies to simply release from the cord once we do our personal work with such a cord – releasing trauma, charged emotions, and correcting any significant energetic imbalances in energy flow. Quite simply, some energies are looking to feed on toxic energy. If we no longer have toxic energy or interactions, the energies feeding off of the cord will simply lift off and go elsewhere.

But the personal work is work with the shadow, with the painbody. And this is precisely what New Thought refuses to do. They have created a bottle-neck of energy in the throat (it is focusing on thinking alone), which hinders the energy in flowing down into heart and hara, love and existence. Its whole philosophy is based on creating this bottle-neck, partly through moral subjectivism, partly through philosophical idealism that denies the existence of the body. And therefore all kind of demonical energies can attach to the cords from the throat and from the third eye. Also remember: what New Thought considers as “positive” is the magnet of attraction, which seen in the view of true spirituality is the cause of all our misery.

A true spiritual practice acknowledge the existence of both an outer divine source and an outer demonical source, both of which you can´t control. Therefore the discrimination between yourself and these sources. The Ego is in this way made transparent along with that original sin and negative karma are transformed and transfigured in the contact with the divine Source (God, Christ, the enlightened consciousness, the saints, spirit helpers etc.) And these two processes mutually fertilize each other.

Therefore I combine The Sword of Discrimination with the divine sword of the archangel Michael. Archangel Michael is traditionally thought to be who to call while cord cutting. He is an angel of protection and carries a sword of light. Traditionally, you would call on him to do the basic cutting for you. So, while sweeping your own sword of discrimination ask Michael to help you to cut all ties, cords, and contracts that are no longer of use for you.

Note that this is not about cutting all cords. There are cords that can´t be cut, but which can be altered. There are also useful cords, and finally there are the divine cords, the dreaming tracks and songlines in your progressive karma, divine providence and spirit help. Cords are a part of Man as a communicative being, they are about relationships, and therefore they must be looked at with an ethical foundation. 

Cords are often combined with words and language. Let us take the word God. The word originates from the past, the world-images; it is a condensation of a fount of tradition and memory, with all its intellectual and sentimental connotations. The past is your perspective, and what you see is your own perspective. The world-image is a projection of yourself, only you differentiate yourself from it in the formation of the Ego, the self-image. In that way there is created a dualism between the object-field and the subject-field.

Language in the object-field is like the atmosphere, which refines and thinner itself outwards: atmosphere – stratosphere – ionossphere; weightless floating in space – full outlook to the blue globe and the stars. The structure of language is the images in time; both the personal, collective and the universal images. The collective and universal images are lying in the object-field almost as a vast refined organic unity. It is therefore language must be seen as an aspect of Man as a natural being. Lévi-Strauss has, as mentioned, a point here. The culture must be restored in nature.

Language is most condensed in the spoken, communicated language: words, sentences, opinions, conversation. This is the subject-field, which primarily is characterized by personal images, but which accordingly originates from collective and universal images.

We have seen how the thinking divides everything. It separates large from small, outside from inside, up from down. The inner reality is divided in feelings and emotions, thoughts, sensations and intuitions. And the individual feelings are divided in hate against love, lust against pain. The outer reality is divided in the observer and the observed, the listener and the sound, the speaker and the spoken. In order to be able to function at all, the thinking differentiates the world in two: subject and object. The thinking is dual.

In close coherence with these aspects of thinking exists language. The thinking functions in language. And language is not only words and sentences. Language is music, mathematics, myths, archetypes, symbols, signs, etc. Language and thinking carry each other. And the collective history is so to speak lying in nature in the form of projected energy. The universal history though, is not projected energy, but is lying beyond Man, it is the actual foundation for the creation of the universe, it is the Great Vision, God´s plan you could say, the dreaming tracks and the songlines in the artwork of the universe and of Man. It works in synchronism with the Now, and therefore with life itself, and not projected in past and future.

The Pythagoreans were primarily mathematicians and astronomers. Their discovery of the mathematical relations of music made them assume, that the tones were the audible expression of the structure of the whole of the universe. They meant they had found consistency between for instance the movement of the planets and the individual tones, between the mutual location of the heavenly bodies and the intervals between the strings of the lyre. From this they concluded, that the movements of the planets in space had to bring forth tones, ”the music of the spheres”.

Since music in that way is an expression of divine or cosmic powers, it is also able to form the human Soul in compliance with the divine relations of numbers. A thought, which came to characterize both Plato, Aristotle, Aristoxenes and Plotinus. The Christian mystic Hildegard Von Bingen wrote a series of songs in the Gregorian tradition; songs, which she received in divine visions, because she in that degree was able to be completely existentially present in the Now. And a similarly philosophy of music you also find in Indian philosophy.

Energy – and consciousness – has an immanent tendency to depict themselves. Energy moves, projects itself from latency to reality. Consciousness, or thinking, tends to separate and divide phenomena in order to analyze them, understand them. Energy projects itself in images and symbols. Consciousness divides images, symbols and phenomena in order to understand them. It is this, which happens when the thinking sucks energy and life out of the present, and transforms past and future into reality, and reality into emptiness. These two basic tendencies: the fall of the energy out in projection, and the fall of consciousness out in division - are what meditation seeks to avoid. Meditation seeks to give energy and life back to presence and reality.

The thinking is constituted by words and images. Words again consist of two elements, partly of a meaning-element, or meaning-symbol, partly of a sound. Whether the word is spoken, thought or only affected in a suspicion, it will always sound or mean something.

The image-side of the thought-process will also be seen to consist of two elements, partly – as all other images by the way – of a color (eventually only the color-nuance black/white) and partly of a structure.

The thinking´s words and images are therefore composite by four fundamental elements: sound and color, symbol and structure.

You can then say, that all this is a manifestation of the past, the self-image and the world-image. It means that the subject-field and the object-field are equivalent with the ordinary thinking in words and images. Only for the thinking is the inner and outer world. By changing the thinking the world also changes. The space is around, and it is an objective outer occurrence. In that way it looks. And in that way they have believed it was; Aristotle and Newton agreed in this.

First with Leibniz, Kant and Einstein started a revolution in the conception of space. Einstein stated, that time and space are ways in which we think, and not relations we live in. Kant suggested, that space and time were forms of experience, not outer objective relations in themselves, but fundamental common human structures. Leibniz claimed that space and time is the order of things and not things, whereby he expressed, that space and time is human made conceptions, not objective facts.

But be careful now! This doesn´t mean, that the ordinary inner and outer reality not are reel. The reality, both the subjective and the objective, is reel. But as mentioned it is the absence, which creates images, this, that you are yourself absent in your thinking, shut inside, or shut away from, in a disproportion between the observer and the observed, filled with reflections, displacement and darkness. Shortly said: space and time.

If the clarity of the mind increases through, that you are becoming yourself present, then the thinking can be made transparent, whereby it begins to unfold its components: sound-color and symbol-structure. In this structured clarity the mind meets the world in a new way, both the inner and the outer, even though inner, on this step, apparently still is clearly divided from outer. The Wholeness has, from its deep, dreamless sleep, begun to dream. The whole of Middle-earth is an example of a dreaming Cosmos. Therefore the paradox that Middle-earth, though based on fantasy, seems more real than our own world.

Instead of, that you via the senses, only meet a world of houses, humans, trees and things – or of feelings, thoughts, lust and pain - then you in this presence furthermore can see a world-image of auric colors, archetypical symbols and yantric, or other, energetical structures. Moreover you can in this presence hear sounds, not sound-images communicated through the hearing sense, but the presence itself hears directly: un-mediated sounds. Your mind is now in an astral state.

If you are absent in the thinking you meet a world divided in inner and outer, and constituted by closed things, substances, structures. This is what we saw in the part on The Black Speech of Mordor. The Ego has, as we all know, not directly insight in, and access to, the inner of things, or the inner of other humans. If you however are present in passive seeing and listening, you can, in your thereby gained clarity - in the astral state of mind - furthermore see and hear a world of vibrant, soundfilled energyfields, which shimmer in symbols and colors. This world-image is open. Such a presence has to a certain extent directly insight in that, which to the thinking´s absence, is closed and inaccessible.

The clearness from the dissolved and evaporated thoughts and contents will widen the mind out towards the borders, where behind the collective common human structures are found: the images in time. These common deep thoughts of mankind, can the mind, by force of its increased clarity – the astral state - see as visions: primordial images, religious images and structures, symbols, wisdom-figures, figures from fairy tales, higher worlds, other dimensions. In short: the astral worlds.

The astral state of mind is also implying a so-called astral body, or a dream body, which is able to leave the physical body while it is sleeping. It is called astral travel, or astral projecting, because it is a kind of projection of the mind, which goes out over the borders of the five senses, though these also seem to follow. With this astral body you can travel elsewhere, both on earth, to other planets, into the astral worlds, into the kingdom of death, and into countless heavens and hells. It is like entering the fairy tale of Peter Pan.

The personality, when it is in this astral state, can receive supernatural information through such astral worlds, and their images and symbols, partly from the collective images, partly from the universal images. However there is immensely difference between, whether the above-mentioned visions appear as a result of upward energy, which sucks energy and life out of the present, and transforms past and future into reality, and reality into emptiness – and whether it happens in the form of downward energy, where there flows energy and life back from past and future, back to the Now, to presence and reality. The latter condition is characterized by discrimination, whilst the discrimination is missing in the first mentioned. The first mentioned might be caught in a spiritual crisis.

Language is most condensed in the spoken, communicated language: words, sentences, opinions, conversation. The thoughts can be as speech, only without sound. But the thoughts can also be abstract, faster, dispositions to words and sentences. And here language nuances itself: polar structures, emotional, creative, intuitive, symbolic and metaphorical language games, musical and mathematical language games. All this is lying in the collective images. The collective images are lying on an astral plan, and work in sequences in past and future/cyclic structures.

Even deeper are the universal images lying, what Sri Aurobindo called vision-logic: language which no longer is verbal, but which is superior, visionary syntheses and wholes, that work more in synchronism with the Now, than in sequences in past and future. From this plane originates the world-images, the superior universal systems and paradigms: philosophical, scientifical, religious-spiritual and cosmic world-images and mappings. These are linguistical refined, highly abstract, stratospherical or ionospherical levels of language and systems of reference, but however still linguistic structures and interpretations. However, they are in their original form not human made, and there is in Indian philosophy many discussions about whether they are expressions of the actual divine unmanifested source, or whether they lie somewhere between the unmanifested and the manifested. They probably correspond to what the Western philosophers have called unmoved matter. To Christians, Muslims and Jews, they are the thoughts of God. To the Shamans they are the Dreamtime. They are what the Elvish languages are based on. The Elvish languages are open to these thoughts.

There is an old myth of an original language. It is in Plato (the “Cratylus”) and the Bible (the story of the Tower of Babel, answered by Pentecost). If this is true, it explains why every proper name of Tolkien´s seems exactly right. (This is a power even many of his critics marvel at.) When we read them we are remembering (Plato´s anamnesis); our cognition is a recognition. Our “word detector” buzzes when we meet the Right Word, the Platonic Idea.

The most powerful and magical language is music. The reason for this is that music is the original language. Music is the language of creation. As mentioned: In The Silmarillion, God and His angels sings the world into being: “In the beginning, Eru, the One, who in Elvish tongue is named Iluvatar, made the Ainur of his thought; and they made a great music before him. In this music the World was begun” (Silmarillion, p. 25).

It is not that the music was in the world but that the world was in the music. Many Indigenous Australians refer to the Creation time as "The Dreaming". The Dreamtime laid down the patterns of life for the Aboriginal people. Creation is believed to be the work of culture heroes who traveled across a formless land, creating sacred sites and significant places of interest through their singing. By singing the world into existence, the Ancestors had been poets in the original sense of poesis, meaning 'creation'In this way, "songlines" were established, some of which could travel right across Australia, through as many as six to ten different language groupings. A songline, also called dreaming track, is one of the paths across the land (or sometimes the sky) which mark the route followed by localised "creator-beings" during the Dreaming. The paths of the songlines are recorded in traditional songs, stories, dance, and painting.

A knowledgeable person is able to navigate across the land by repeating the words of the song, which describe the location of landmarks, waterholes, and other natural phenomena. In some cases, the paths of the creator-beings are said to be evident from their marks, or petrosomatoglyphs, on the land, such as large depressions in the land which are said to be their footprints.

By singing the songs in the appropriate sequence, indigenous people could navigate vast distances, often travelling through the deserts of Australia's interior. The continent of Australia contains an extensive system of songlines, some of which are of a few kilometres, whilst others traverse hundreds of kilometres through lands of many different indigenous peoples — peoples who may speak markedly different languages and have different cultural traditions.

Since a songline can span the lands of several different language groups, different parts of the song are said to be in those different languages. Languages are not a barrier because the melodic contour of the song describes the nature of the land over which the song passes. The rhythm is what is crucial to understanding the song. Listening to the song of the land is the same as walking on this songline and observing the land.

In some cases, a songline has a particular direction, and walking the wrong way along a songline may be a sacrilegious act (e.g. climbing up Uluru where the correct direction is down). Traditional Aboriginal people regard all land as sacred, and the songs must be continually sung to keep the land "alive".

This mythology reminds in an astonishing way about “the music of the spheres,” in which everything is, the “Song of Songs” that includes all songs. All matter, space, time, and history are in this primal language.

Plato knew the power of music. In the Republic it is the first step in education in the good society and the first step in corruption in the bad one. Nothing is more powerful to the good society, to education, to human happiness in this world.

Music is not ornamented poetry, and poetry is not ornamented prose. Poetry is fallen music, and prose is fallen poetry. Prose is not the original language, it is poetry made practical. Even poetry is not the original language; it is music made speakable, it is the words of music separated from their music. In the beginning was music.

The Lord of the Rings is full of singing. One of its indices lists fifty-six songs or poems. The Hobbits sing high hymns to Elbereth and homespun Walking Songs and Bath Songs. Tolkien, like Bombadil, is a writer of prose who is bursting with poetry and music. Peter Beagle calls him “a writer whose own prose is itself taut with poetry”.

Music is an essential part of Elvish enchantment. When the Fellowship enters Lothlorien, Sam says, “I feel as if I was inside a song, if you take my meaning” (LOTR, p. 342). And we say the same when we enter The Lord of the Rings.

Kreeft says that the last division of philosophy that will ever be understood clearly and adequately by reason is aesthetics, and within aesthetics, music.

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